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Full text of "Lettering of working drawings"

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LETTERI 



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BY 



J. C. L. FISH, C. E., 

Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering in the Leland Stanford Junior University. 



NEW YORK. 

D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY. 

1894. 





Copyright, 1894, 
D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY. 



53-o\ 



^1 



PREFACE 



This is believed to be the first presentation of a collection of styles of lettering made up 
directly from working drawings. 

Brief remarks on the details of the construction of the simplest style of alphabet, on lettering 
in general, and on the make-up of titles, precede the general collection. 

The detached portions of working drawings placed beneath the alphabets of the collection 
are given to show the appearance of the letters when grouped in words. They give some idea, 
too, of the general features of a working drawing. 

Allow me, here, to express my gratitude to Professor Wing, of this University, for sug- 
gestions, and to those gentlemen in many of the principal engineering and architectural offices of 
the United States through whose kindness the presentation of styles taken from working drawings 
has been made possible. 

J. C. L.. F. 

Stanford Univei'sity, CaL, July, iSg^. 



LETTERING OF WORKING DRAWINGS. 



DETAILS OF THE FORMATION OF A STANDARD ALPHABET. 



The remarks included under this head are intended 
for the draftsman who finds himself unable to give an appear- 
ance of uniformity to his lettering. 

In freehand lettering, outside of titles, three horizontal 

Plate I. penciled guide lines are sufficient (see Plate i). The 

distance between the upper and middle, is generally from a 

half to two-thirds of that between the middle and lower lines. 



A fourth line might be drawn below, (as shown in Row i, Plate i. 
Plate I,) but this is scarcely necessary. 

Plate 1, Rows 1, 2, 3. 

The arrows point out the direction in which the pen 
is moved in makino- the several strokes of the letter, and 
the small figures show the order in which the strokes are 
made. 



Plate I, 



Lower-Case Letters. 



We start with the letter O ( here a circle) as a basis. 
All other letters which are curved in part, are nothing more 
than with addition or subtraction, or both. 

a If we add a straight vertical line to the right side 
of O we have the letter a. 

b This is made by drawing a vertical line tangent to 
the letter O on the left side. 



(1 This letter is like a except that the stem of d 
extends to the upper guide line. 

g By producing the stem of a downward the letter 
g is formed. The lower end of this letter is usually curved 
to the left. 

p By drawing a vertical line tangent on the left of 
O and producing it downward we form p. 



Plate I. 



P^'^^^^- q Like g in the main. The lower end of the straight 

Hne is generally curved to the right. 

C If the middle right hand portion of O is omitted, 
C is formed. 

e This letter is O with the omission of a portion of 
the rio-ht hand side and the addition of the curved line across 
the interior. 

n, m, h In these letters, vertical lines are drawn 
taneent to O and the lower half of that letter omitted. 

U This is n inverted and reversed. 

y If the straight line of U be extended downward, 
y results. 



r This is n with the omission of the right half of the 
curve and the right hand vertical line. 

S This letter consists of the upper and lower portions of 
O and a reversed curve joining the left end of the upper 
with the right end of the lower portion. ^ 

1, J, k, t^ I and Z These letters are self-explanatory. 

V Two lines making equal angles with the vertical 
and meeting at their lower extremities form the letter V. 

W This letter consists of two letters V placed in 
contact side by side. 

X This letter is made up of two lines equally inclined 
to the vertical, meeting at their middle points. 



Plate I . 



Plate T . 



Upper-Case Letters. 



A The side lines make equal angles with the vertical, 
and the horizontal line is just below the middle of the letter. 

B The three horizontal lines are equidistant and of 
same length. The two curves are of the same form and 
size. 



Rows 2 and 3, Plate 1. 

C Like the lower case C In form. 

D The curve is the right half of O, 

K, F, H, L K, L, T, X These are self ex 



Plate I . 



planatory. 



Plate I . 



G This is G with the addition of the short hori- 
zontal and vertical lines. 

J The curve of J is the right lower quarter and the 
lower left quarter of O. 

M The inclined lines make equal angles with t1ie 
vertical, and form the letter V. 

N This letter Is somewhat narrower than M . 

O This is a circle. 

P If we omit stroke three of JD we have r . 

Q The construction is apparent. 



Inclined Letters. 

pj^^g J If, in the preceding remarks on the formation of the 

upright letters the words vertical and circle be changed 
to slant and oval respectively, those remarks will apply to 
construction of inclined letters. (See rows 4 and 5, Plate i.) 



R This is P with the addition of stroke three. 
S See lower case S. 

U The lower half of O is the curved portion of 
this letter. 

V Turn A bottom up and omit stroke three and 
V results. 

W This consists of two letters V the extreme left 
of the one touching the extreme right of the other. 

Y The inclined lines make equal angles with the 
vertical and meet just below the middle of the letter. 



Plate 2. 



Italics. 

The first two lines of Plate 2 show the principles em- p^^^^ ^ 
ployed in the construction of all curved letters of this kind. 
No verbal explanations are necessary. 

The Italic Capitals (upper case letters) are in the main 
like those in Nq. i, Plate 5. piate 5 







Arabic Numerals. 




Plate I 


Row 6, Plate i, 
letter O. 


shows the manner in which the majority of the curved portions of the arabic numerals are taken from the 


Plate I . 



ON PRACTICE WORK. 



The beeinner's materials will consist of any sort of 
drafting paper, medium pointed pen and free flowing- ink. 
All these will be found in any drafting room. 

Rule, in pencil, three parallel guide lines, spacing them 
Plate I. about as they are given in Plate i. 

Begin with the lower case letters. 

As the letter Q enters so largely into the make-up 
of letters, it will be well to practise on this till several of them 
can be made, one after another, with uniformity. 

Next take up the letters embracing O entirely. Be- 
ginning with a repeat it till it can be uniformly reproduced. 

Continue in this manner with the remaining letters of 
the alphabet. 

Until the beginner is quite proficient in lettering, he 
should, in making any letter embracing the complete O, make 
the whole of Q and then the necessary additions. 

When any portion of O enters into a letter's form, 
imagine, while you are drawing that particular portion, that you 
are drawing the corresponding part of the letter Q. For ex- 
ample : In making the letter n, draw the straight down- 
stroke, then, beginning at the middle of the stroke, the curved 
portion as if for the upper half of Q, and at the end of the 
curve proceed straight downward to the bottom of the letter. 



Until the bemnner is familiar with the standard form Plate i. 
of letter as given above, it is not well for him to attempt any 
modification of that standard. 

In practising, take particular pains to make all stems 
of letters exactly parallel, whether the style be vertical or in- 
clined. If stems cannot be made parallel otherwise, penciled 
lines of the required inclination should be ruled in. The hori- 
zontal spacing of these need not be closer than one half inch. 

If all the lines are made of the same weight, progress 
will be more rapid than if shading is attempted. In making 
the stems, do not let the pressure on the pen point decrease 
at the end of the stroke, otherwise there results a pointed line 
which gives an appearance of weakness to the lettering. I 
the pen is pressed so lightly that the nibs do not separate, the 
work will be more satisfactory. 

Do not let any part of a letter project beyond, above 
or below, the guide lines which properly limit it. Do not 
fail to make a letter meet the guide lines, wherever such 
meeting is proper. For example, let the letter Q be exactly 
tangent to the middle and lower guide lines. 

After becoming familiar with the standard form of let- 
ter, any style given in the plates may be copied intelligently, 
and any style of pen may be used. 



MODIFICATION OF CAPITALS. 



\ 

¥ 



Plate 2. It Is quite seldom that any variety is wanted In the 

lower case letters of a drawing. But titles are composed in 
great part of capitals, and it is desirable that there be a variation 
not only in the size but also in the style of letters composing 
them. It is the object of this section to show how any plain 
capital may be made quickly and without previous long ex- 
perience. 

Pi.-^t-e2. The last four lines of Plate 2 show thirty-eight styles 

of capitals (all taken from actual drawings) exhibited in the 
letter r , In every case the letter is given in detail first and 
then in finished form. It will be seen that the skeleton of the 
letter (shown in dotted lines) is always the same, whatever 
the appearance of the completed letter. In making the letter 
this skeleton is drawn first, and in pencil. The outline which 



we desire in the finished letter is next sketched in, first in Plate 2 
pencil and afterward in ink. Then the outline is filled in solid 
with ink or shaded according as the finished letter is to be 
solid or open. 

In the right half of the last line of Plate 2, the word 
" Frame " is given twice. In both cases the initial letter is 
the same. The other letters in the two cases are of somevv^iat 
different style; nevertheless the r appears to be quite as appro Plate 2 
priate in the one case as in the other. This fact has made it 
seem unnecessary to give the complete alphabet in each style 
exhibited in the single letter r . The draftsman can, from 
the peculiarities shown in each style of r , construct the re- 
maining letters of the alphabet in the same style, with enough 
of accuracy to give an appearance of uniformity to the wholco 



ON TITLES. 



^^^^^ 3- A title gives a complete key to a drawing as the title 

to a scientific or technical book furnishes a key to the con- 
tents. Manifestly there are some words of a title v/hich have 
greater Importance than others. It is for the draftsman to so 



construct the tide of a drawing as to bring out this relative ^^^^^ 
importance by making the prominence of the words corres- 
pond to it. 

As in the case of book titles, adjacent words of the 



same importance are placed on the same line and composed 
of the same style and size of letters. 

The size of the letters in the most prominent words 
depends on the size of the drawing and sometimes on the 
space which can be appropriated to the tide. 

Pi^te 3. Fig. I, Plate 3, gives the skeleton work of a tide. Ac- 

cording to the relative size of the letters the word "map", 
" property " and "West Real Estate Co'y " are of about the 
same importance. " Of" and " belonging to ", as connecting 
words, are given the least prominence. '^ Norfolk, Va." is of 
secondary importance. 

This skeleton may be inked in directly without modi- 
fication if it is not worth while to give more time to it. In 
that case it would have the appearance given in Fig. i, with 
the omission of the horizontal and vertical guide lines. 

The guide lines of Fig. 2 are exactly like those of Fig. i . 
The skeleton letters, shown in clotted lines, are also like those 
of Fig. I. Around these skeletons are drawn, first in pencil 
and then in ink, the outlines of the letters as they are to be 
when finished. So far, the relative importance of the words 
of the title is the same as before. 

Fig. 3 represents the title in the final stage. The out- 
lines of Fig. 2 have been filled in or shaded, and the guide 



lines and skeleton lines erased. By giving the letters of 
'*niap" the open, and those of " property " and " West Real 
Estate Co'y " the solid style, the prominence of the two last 
named, with reference to the first is increased. This treat- 
ment is in the supposition that the main object of the title is 
to show that the exhibit, in whatever form it may be, has to do 
with the PROPERTY of the WEST REAL ESTATE 
CO'Y. 

By filling in the oudines of "map" and "property," 
shadino- those of " West Real Estate Co'y " and erasino^ skele- 
ton and guide lines of Fig. 2, Fig. 4 is produced. This man- Plate 4. 
ner of finishing the letters supposes that the first thing to be 
brought to the reader's notice is that the exhibit is a MAP 
of PROPERTY, instead of a sketch or design, etc., of coun- 
try house or engine, etc. The words " Norfolk, Va." are also 
more prominent in Fig. 4 than in Fig. 3, though one is a dupli- 
cate of the other. 

In Figs. I and 2, Plate 4, this bringing out of the rel- 
ative importance of the words of a title by the final work on 
them is more vividly shown. The outlines in the right half 
of Fig. 2 are, in size and style, exactly like those in the left 
half, and by covering one half while looking at the other and 
vice versa, this difference in appearance between the two sides 
is still more marked. 



1 



It is seen that the relative prominence of words whose 
outHnes are of the same style and size depends on the ratio 
of black to white in the filling-in. Evidently then, the rela- 
tive importance of the words of a title need not be exactly 
brought out by the relative prominence of the skeleton 
letters, unless the skeleton is to be inked in directly without 
modification. 

The relative importance of the words of a title is affect- 
ed by so many conditions that no reasonable number of rules 
for deciding that importance would cover all cases. 

Even the duplicates of the same drawing may require 
the words of the titles to be differently emphasized for 
each. For instance : two copies are made of a map of a por- 
tion of a railroad right-of-way lying between two towns. The 
first copy is to be filed in the railroad's office, the second in 
a county surveyor's office. In the railroad's office all draw- 
ings concern the railroad directly, so that the name of the 
particular portion of its property represented by a drawing is 
of more importance than the fact that it concerns this partic- 
ular railroad. In the surveyor's office the drawings concern 
various corporations and individuals, and the name of the 
particular corporation or individuals with which a drawing is 
concerned, is of the first importance. So for the railroad com- 
pany's copy the title might be : 



MAP 

of 

PORTION 

of 

LAKE ERIE and WESTERN R. R. 

Lying between 

HURON AND MILAN, OHIO. 

and the title for the copy for the surveyor's office would be : 

MAP 

of 

PORTION 

of 

LAKE ERIE and WESTERN R. R. 

Lying between 
HURON AND MILAN, OHIO. 



Aeain, when the drawino-s of the details of a structure 
are constructed on sheets of uniform size to be afterward 



bound together, the titles of the different sheets are, for ex- 
ample, somewhat analogous to the tides of the pages in a 
manufacturer's catalogue. 

The first page in the catalogue calls attention to the 
name and location of the manufacturer. On each of the fol- 
lowing pages the name of the particular article there shown 
is emphasized above all other words. The name of the man- 
ufacturer is made less conspicuous. So with the drawings : 
The title of the first sheet gives the name of the structure 
and its location the greatest prominence, while on each of the 



remaining sheets is emphasized the name of the particular 
portion of the structure thereon represented ; the name and 
location of the structure is added in a less prominent way and 
simply for the identification of the sheet, in case it should be- 
come detached from the book of sheets. 

Figs. 3 and 4, Plate 4, are specimens of titles com- Plate 4. 
posed of lower case letters. Other titles are scattered through- 
out the plates, showing the arrangement of words incidentally, 
though primarily for the exhibition of the various styles of let- 
terino-. 



ON STYLES TAKEN FROM WORKING DRAWINGS. 



Plate 5. 



Plate 6. 



Alphabets Nos. i and 2, Plate 5, are made with a fine 
pointed pen. No. 2 would seem to be particularly adapted to 
those who write a back-hand, though it is quite as much used 
by others. 

No. 3, Plate 6, is made with a right line pen. This 
instrument glides very smoothly on tracing cloth. No. 3 
might be made also with a stub pen by those who write a 
back -hand. 

No. 4, Plate 6, is made with a fine pointed elastic pen. 



Nos. 5 and 6, Plate 7. are made with a pen of medium piate;. 



point. 



No. 7, Plate 8, is made with a round pointed pen. 



Plate 8. 



No. 8, Plate 8, is made with a stub pen held in position 
for back-hand writing. 

No. 9, Plate 9, is made with a stub pen held in po- piate 9. 
sition for back-hand writine. 

No. 10, Plate 9, is made with a medium pointed pen. 



Plate lo. Nos. 1 1 and 12, Plate 10, are made with a medium pen. 
Plate II. Nos. 13 and 14, Plate 1 1, are made with a fine pen. 

No. 1 5, Plate 1 1, is made with a fine pointed stub pen. 
Plate 12. No. 16, Plate 12, IS made with a fine pointed, elastic pen. 

Nos. 17 and 18, Plate i 2, are made with a fine pointed pen. 

Nos. 19 and 20, Plate 13, are made with a medium pen. 



The appearance of any style may be changed by simply 
changing the style of pen given above for it. 

Plates 11,12 and 13 consist of styles used mainly for piate 13. 
architectural drawings. No examples of dimensioning are 
given on these plates for the reason that this detail of archi- 
tectural, does not differ from that of engineering drawings. 



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BOOKS FOR DRAUGHTSMEN. 



l-OR SALE BY 



D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY, Publishers, 

23 Murray and 27 Warren Streets, New York. 



Andre, Geo. G,— The Draughtsman's Hand Book of Plan and Map Drawing ; includ- 
ing Instructions for the preparation of Engineering, Architectural and Mechanical 

Drawings. 8vo, cloth 3.75 

Armeiigaud, Aiiie et Jeune, Amoroux and Johnson, W.— The Practical 
Draughtsman's Book of Industrial Design, and Machini^s' and Engineers' Drawing 
Companion. Illustrated by fifty foHo steel plates, and fifty wood cuts. New 

edition. 4to, half mor 10.00 

Barber, T. W.— The Engineers' Sketch Book of Mechanical Movements, Devices, 
Appliances, Contrivances, Details employed in the Design and Construction of 

Machinery for every purpose. Nearly 2 , 000 illustrations. 8vo, cloth 3 . 00 

Bin IIS, Wni. — An Elementary Treatise on Orthographic Projection, with numerous 

illustrations. 8vo, cloth 3.50 

Second Course of Orthographic Projection ; being a continuation of the New 

Method of Teaching the Science of Mechanical Drawing. 8vo, cloth 4.50 

Copley's Plain and Ornamental Alphabets.— Examples in every style. 
Mechanical and Analytical Construction of Letters, Designs for Titles, Ciphers, 

Monograms, Borders, Compasses, Flourishes, etc. New edition 2.00 

Cryer, T. and Jordan, H. G. — Machine Construction and Mechanical Drawing; 
including Spur and Bevel Gearing. For the Use of Students in Science and Tech- 
nical Schools. Quarto, cloth 1.20 

Davidson, E. A. — Drawing for Machinists aad Engineers. Comprising a complete 
course of Drawing adapted to the requirements of Millwrights and Engineers; also, 
course of practical instruction in the coloring of Mechanical Drawings. 4th edition, 

16mo 2.00 

Donaldson, Jas. — Drawing and Piough Sketching for Marine Engineers, with Pro- 
portions, Instructions, Explanation; and Examples, intended for the use of Sea- 
going Engineers and others in preparing Working Sketches and Rough Drawings; 
also, how to Design Engines, Boilers, Propellers, Paddle Wheels, Shafts, RodE, 

Valves, etc. 4th edition. Illustrated. Cloth 2.40 

Draughtsman, The Biiildiug- and Machine. — A practical guide to the pro- 
jection and delineation of subjects met with in the practice of the Engineer, 
Machinist and Building Constructor, etc. 12mo, cloth $ 2.00 



Engineers' and Machinists' Drawing-Book.— A complete course of Instruc- 
tion for the Practical Engineer. Illustrated by numerous engravings. 4to, half mor. 10.00 

Fan nee, Prof. L. — Mechanical Drawing, prepared for the use of the Students of 
the Mass. Institute of Technology. Second edition, revised and enlarged. Illustrations 
and 8 plates. 12mo, cloth 1.25 

Hiilme, F. E.— Mathematical Drawing Instruments and How to Use Them. Fourth 

edition. 12mo, cloth 1.50 

Minifie, Win.— Mechanical Drawing. A Text-Book of Geometrical Drawing, for the 
use of Mechanics and Schools, in which the Definitions and Rules of Geometry are 
familiarly explained ; the Practical Problems are arranged from the most simple to 
the more complex, and in their description technicalities are avoided as much as 
possible. With illustrations for Drawing Plans, Sections and Elevations of Build- 
ings and Machinery ; an Introduction to Isometrical Drawing, and an Essay on 
Linear I'erspective and Shadows. Illustrated by over 200 diagrams, engraved on 
steel. With an Appendix on the Theory and Application of Colors. 8vo, cloth. 9th 
thousand 4.00 

Geometrical Drawing. Abridged from the octavo edition, for the use of Schools. 

Illustrated with 48 steel plates. Ninth edition, revised and enlarged. 12mo, cloth.. 2.00 

Kipper, William. — A Course of Instruction in Machine Drawing and Desiga for 
Technical Schools and Engineer Students. V/ith 52 plates and numerous explanatory 
engravings. Foho, cloth 7.50 

Kose, Joshua.— Mechanical Drawing Self-Taught. Comprising Instructions in the 
Selection and Preparation of Drawing Instruments, Elementary Instruction in 
Practical Mechanical Drawing, together with Examples in Simple Geometry and 
Elementary Mechanism, including Screw Threads, Gear Wheels, Mechanical 
Motions, Engines aud Boilers. Illustrated. 8vo, cloth 4 . 00 

Stanley, W. F. — A Descriptive Treatise on Mathematical Di'awing Instruments, 
their Construction, Uses, Qualities, Selection, Preservation and Suggestions for 
Improvements, with Hints upon Drawing and Coloring. Fifth edition. 12mo, cloth. 2.00 

Unwin, W. C. — The Elements of Machine Design. Part I, General Principles, 
Fastenings and Transinissive Machinery. Thirteenth edition, revised and enlarged. 

12mo, cloth 2.00 

Part II. Chiefly on Engine Details. Twelfth edition . 12mo, cloth 1.50 




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